COVID-19 Update: You can do Your Planning From Home

Nursing home and other long-term care costs can be extremely high for the people in need of care and their families. Medicaid and other federal programs may help those in need to pay for long-term care costs. In some states, including Colorado, eligibility for Medicaid assistance with nursing home care is dependent on a person’s income rather than their need. In Colorado, it is common for someone who legitimately cannot afford long-term care to make too much money to qualify for Medicaid assistance.

In Colorado, the Medicaid income limit for 2021 is generally $2382. Persons who generate more than this amount of income will not be eligible for Medicaid assistance in paying for long-term care or nursing home costs. Most long-term care facilities and nursing homes will cost substantially more than this amount for care, and many people with income above the limit will be unable to afford the care they need without additional assistance. With the help of a Colorado estate planning attorney, however, people in need of care may be able to use what is called a qualified income trust to sequester some of their income for care costs while still maintaining Medicaid eligibility and receiving federal benefits.

A qualified income trust, also known as a Miller trust, is a specific legal instrument that is used to manage a person’s income. Income that is deposited in the trust account is not counted toward the income limit for Medicaid eligibility. Miller trusts require a trustee to be appointed to manage the income and expenses of the account. In order to successfully establish a qualified income trust, a person must meet the other requirements for Medicaid eligibility, including a medical need for care, as well as owning less than $2000 in countable assets.

When adults think about the future, it can be difficult to envision where they will be living. For some, they assume they will be staying with a loved one, whereas others save so they can reside in an assisted living facility. There are many long-term care options for seniors as they age—but it may be difficult to discern the differences between these options. Below are explanations for some of the most common long-term care options that can help a person to determine the best choice for them depending on their needs.

Home Care

Home-based care allows individuals to stay at their home—or that of a loved one—and live as independently as possible. Home-based care primarily involves personal care, such as help taking medication, bathing, and daily activities. For the most part, family members, spouses, friends, and neighbors provide this care.

While most people obtain health insurance through an employer, they will lose this coverage once they retire. Thus, as we approach retirement, one of the most important considerations is the availability of long-term healthcare coverage. This coverage is imperative to cover the high costs of medical expenses as we move into the next phase of life and protect familial assets from the skyrocketing costs of long-term care.

Recent surveys suggest that most people want to live at home as long as possible, preferring in-home care to that provided by nursing homes and assisted living facilities. However, this is not the reality for many. In fact, 78% of the state’s long-term care dollars are spent on care facilities rather than in-home caregivers.

Medicare, which is widely available for anyone over 55 years old, Medicare does not provide meaningful coverage for long-term care—either in-home or in a long-term care facility. Thus, this means that most people on Medicare will end up paying out-of-pocket for these expenses. This is where Medicaid planning comes into play.

In an effort to provide Americans with access to retirement savings, Congress passed the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act. The SECURE Act created profound retirement and tax reforms resulting in myriad implications for American workers. The changes should prompt individuals to reevaluate their Colorado estate plan documents to ensure a happy and secure retirement.

The SECURE Act requires Colorado certain employers to offer their employees a retirement savings plan or enroll their qualifying workers in a state-sponsored retirement account. The Act applies to most employers besides small private and nonprofit entities. Significant changes include 401(k)s, IRAs, and 529 college savings accounts. The ACT offers small Colorado business owners a tax credit for starting a workplace retirement plan. Further, new parents receive a benefit in the form of a penalty-free $5,000 withdrawal from a 401(k) or IRA following the birth or adoption of a child.

One of the most significant changes involves the elimination of the “stretch” option for retirement accounts. Under the Act, the majority of non-spouse beneficiaries must withdraw the balance of any inherited retirement accounts within ten years. Beneficiaries must adjust their withdrawal plans to avoid a drastic increase in their tax bills. Before the change, beneficiaries of inherited retirement accounts could opt to take distributions over their lifetime. The change may result in a change of a beneficiaries tax bracket, thus receiving more minor of the funds in the account than initially planned.

Estate plans allow individuals to contemplate their final wishes regarding their healthcare, finances, and disposition of their remains. A Colorado estate planning attorney can assist individuals in determining the best way to document their final wishes to ensure that their family correctly effectuates their desires. Although last will and testament documents may include funeral and burial wishes, these documents may not be discovered until it is too late. In an effort to avoid this situation, individuals should include their wishes in more than one place. In addition to a last will and testament, funeral and disposition arrangements may be included in a revocable trust or additional document. The importance of clear and binding instructions is vital given Colorado’s new human composting bill.

The new bill may create a feeling of discomfort for some families; however, individuals maintain the right to reasonably dispose of their bodies in a manner that they wish. In most states, individuals are given three options for the disposition of their bodies after they pass: burial, cremation, or donation. Although these options often align with religious, traditional, and cultural beliefs, they pose their own challenges and limitations. In response to these limited options, many people have begun touting Colorado’s green burial movement as an economical and environmentally friendly option.

Human composting, sometimes known as Natural Organic Reduction (NOR), works in the same way as any other form of composting. It is the process of breaking down human remains into the earth to be reused. The body is placed inside a large cylinder vessel with bacteria and wood chips that allows the body to break down naturally. The resulting soil may be used for forestry, land conservation, and agriculture. Although it is similar to cremation in that it saves space, money and allows the loved one to be spread in a cherished location, it provides a biological value that cremation does not.

Funeral arrangements are something that are extremely personal and poignant. While a family will often have to go through the emotionally tolling process of planning a funeral, the individual can minimize the burden by putting their wishes in their estate plan. This cannot entirely alleviate the work the family must do after the death, but this can ensure the family knows what the deceased would want done. With the emergence of new funeral options—especially when it comes to dispersing the remains—elaborating on end-of-life arrangements is absolutely necessary.

The Colorado State Legislature recently passed a bill that would permit the composting of human remains instead of processes like burial and cremation. The governor has also indicated he will sign the bill into law. Many Coloradans have expressed interest in composting their remains—both because it is an alternative to traditional burial methods and because of their love of the environment and sustainability. While many individuals may not want to use this method of dispersal, this empowers people to have another choice for their funeral arrangements.

Individuals can plan other aspects of the funeral—and include it in their estate plan—to reduce the burden on loved ones during what is already a difficult time. This can often be incorporated into the estate plan through an End-of-Life document, which informs the Executor of the estate how to carry out the deceased’s final arrangements. End-of-Life plans can also include what the person wants to be done with their remains—as discussed above—as well as any details they want in the memorial service. End-of-Life plans can also have other benefits: individuals will often set money aside in a trust to take care of funeral expenses. Doing this ensures loved ones are not overwhelmed paying for the funeral themselves.

Over the past year, many changes have occurred due to the COVID-19 pandemic. While people are realizing those things that are most important to them, it has also invoked reminders to prepare for the future. For many, this should include updating an estate plan, which can provide peace of mind for them and their family. Additionally, the pandemic has caused new situations and scenarios that require estate planning documents to be further specified. Below are some elements of an estate plan that should be updated and discussed with family members—particularly in light of the pandemic.

Healthcare Documents

While every estate plan includes healthcare-related documents—including a living will and healthcare proxy—some of these forms may need to be altered because of the treatment needed for serious cases of COVID-19. For example, one of the common estate planning documents is a DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) or POLST (Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment). On this form, some people will indicate no life-saving measures be taken if they are sick, including a prohibition against intubation. However, for many hospitalized individuals with COVID, intubation is necessary to survive. As a part of their estate plan, individuals should specify the cases where they may want intubation—such as COVID treatment—from those situations they do not want intubation—like if they are in a vegetative state. Coloradans can revise their healthcare documents to reflect this change in circumstances.

Over time, the federal laws surrounding estate and gift taxes have been altered—often with the change in administration. This past month, Senator Bernie Sanders introduced his estate and gift tax reform legislation to lower the estate tax exemption to $3,500,000. For Coloradans with an estate plan in place, this may affect them. While this bill has not been passed yet, it is important for Coloradans to contact their estate planning attorneys and get ahead of the curve in case it does.

Senator Sanders’ bill aims to reduce the estate tax exemption from $11,700,000 to $3,500,000. This means if the proposal passes, an individual with an estate valued at over $3,500,000 will have to pay 45% on the excess of the limit up to the first $10 million of assets, 50% on the next $40 million worth of assets, 55% on the next $50 million, and 65% on everything over $1 billion in assets. For married couples, the estate tax exemption will be $7,000,000.

Often, individuals will think gifting away part of their estate is the solution to fall under the estate tax limit. However, this can have complications if a person gives away more money than is exempted from the gift tax. The gift tax exemption is the amount of money that an individual can give away as a part of their estate without paying a tax on the gift. Currently, the limit is $11,700,00, but Senator Sanders’ proposal will reduce the gift tax exemption to $1,000,000. This does not include the $15,000 per year that a person may gift without worrying about it being taxed.

After creating a Colorado estate plan that contains a trust, there is one final step: choosing the trustee to oversee the trust after the creator of the estate has passed away. The trustee manages the assets in the trust and distributes the assets according to the creator’s wishes. A lot of people have misconceptions about who to pick as their trustee, assuming that picking a family member will be more cost-effective and no one knows them better than a loved one. However, there are benefits to picking a professional trustee instead—and all the knowledge and experience that comes with one. Below are common misconceptions people have about choosing a professional trustee and why they are ultimately incorrect in holding these assumptions.

A Professional Trustee Does Not Understand Me or My Family’s Dynamics

Many individuals worry that if they hire a professional trustee, they are choosing someone who does not know them and their family—as compared to picking a loved one to serve as trustee. However, professional trustees not only strive to get to know their clients but also come with the experience to navigate the complicated nature of estate planning. A major part of a trustee’s job is to fulfill the creator’s written wishes. To do so, they build strong relationships with families by learning more about them and treat beneficiaries as partners during the administrative process.

While creating a trust is critical for many people and their loved ones, it may seem complicated at first. There are also important decisions that must be made throughout the process that will impact the beneficiaries and the assets within a Colorado estate plan. One such choice is who to designate as the successor trustee to a revocable living trust. A successor trustee is appointed to take over the trust when the creator of the trust—who normally serves as the initial trustee—becomes incapacitated or dies. Because the successor trustee has important responsibilities, it is important to choose the right person to serve this role.

Initially, the person creating the revocable trust normally acts as the trustee. However, in an irrevocable trust, someone else must be appointed to this position. The successor trustee’s role only comes into play when the initial trustee can no longer manage the trust. When the initial trustee either passes away or becomes incapacitated, the successor assumes control of the trust.

While a successor trustee’s role may seem similar across all successor trustees, this is not the case. The exact duties the successor trustee must undertake depends on the terms set in the trust agreement. The successor trustee often appraises the value of all the assets in the trust, pays all taxes, and sets aside funds for expenses the trust may incur. Regardless of the specifics of the trust, the main duty of all successor trustees is to handle the transfer of assets to the beneficiaries and ensure that they follow the terms written in the trust. Unlike an estate executor, a successor trustee’s role may continue for years after the initial trustee’s passing. For example, the initial trustee may leave a grandson assets that they do not want him to receive until his 25th birthday. If the initial trustee passes when the grandson is 14 years old, the successor trustee must safeguard his inheritance until his 25th birthday.

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