While many people put off thinking about death, recent policy initiatives have made this not the case for many. With a dramatic increase of states considering right-to-die initiatives—that make it possible for terminally ill patients to use medicine to end their lives—strong opinions over the topic are rampant. Colorado passed The End-of-Life Options Act (the Act), providing terminally ill individuals with the right to use prescribed medication to end their lives. Although many individuals do not think about how this Act could impact estate planning matters, it does. There are critical estate planning measures individuals with terminal illnesses must take to aid their loved ones after their death.
After failing to pass in the Colorado legislature, the End-of-Life Options Act was placed on the Colorado ballot in 2016. This initiative passed and led to the bill’s enactment, which allows terminally ill people to request assistance in dying—but in only certain defined situations. To request a prescription for life-ending medication in Colorado, a patient must be: at least 18 years old; a Colorado resident; mentally capable of making and communicating health care decisions; diagnosed with a terminal disease in which they will die over the next six months. Beyond these requirements, the patient will only be prescribed the medicine if they make three requests—two verbal and one written— for the medicine at least fifteen days apart in front of two qualified, adult witnesses. The doctor must also offer the patient the opportunity to withdraw the request for the medication before providing the prescription.
For individuals with a terminal illness, it is critical to have an estate plan in place before they pass away. This is because an estate plan explains how individuals want to be cared for in their final days and what measures should be taken—this can include taking actions legalized under The End-of-Life Options Act, if the individual has a terminal illness. Otherwise, it provides instructions on the medical interventions they want to be taken, and who should make decisions on the individual’s behalf if they become incapacitated. Additionally, creating an estate plan provides for how, and to whom, they want their assets to be distributed. If a person does not have an estate plan before they die, the court will decide how their assets will be handled. While creating an estate plan—and specifically making end-of-life decisions—may be uncomfortable, it alleviates a major source of stress in the end.